This would be very impractical.
A protocol may be defined, Microsoft would try their magic, anybody else and their brother might try the same thing. With so many different providers like this, nobody would want to integrate it.
There would be nothing to stop you from setting up this sort of system on yourself. Then where does payment go? It goes no where, because its your server. This in itself is exactly what would make this ineffective.
A central authority may work, but who will run it? We know how well ICANN and Microsoft have worked as central authorities. ICANN abuses power, and so does Microsoft. Entering another monopoly... charge rates that they want.
Next, competing email providers... might work, but you still have fraudulant domain providers and this would be no different.
There must be some other way to make it so that it is not economically feasible for spammers to operate.