Inserting the CD and retrieving the track information is pretty easy already, although you can get hung up if the CDDB returns more than one match.
Once you see the CD in iTunes (not importing it, just playing), you should be able to go through the tracks and grab the information that you need. You could use AppleScript or Perl's Mac::iTunes.
Once you can access the playlist, just dump the information to a tab-delimited file (since most things can read tab delimited text easily).
Once you have that file, you can use Filemaker's "File>Import...", or mysqlimport. I am not sure about the database facilities in AppleSccript, but you could leave off the intermediate file with Perl and connect directly to mysql (or most other databases).
All you have to do is turn that description into a script of some sort. Good luck!