agree with “What this article fails to point out is this” Please comment, but if David is the system administrator of the system, this implies that David has management responsibilities for the system. This also means that by that authority that has been granted by his position, he has rights to install and alter systems. He cannot be assumed to have committed the crime though deceit unless there is a policy that David has violated though the university change control system. Does this university have some stringent change control system or some policies about the systems written down that he has violated for his position at the university. Please someone fill in the blanks.