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O'Reilly Book Excerpts: Apache Cookbook

Cooking with Apache, Part 3

by Rich Bowen and Ken Coar

Editor's note: In this third and final batch of recipes from the recently released Apache Cookbook, authors Rich Bowen and Ken Coar provide solutions to problems related to authentication, symbolic links, and the ever-troublesome trailing slash. And if you missed any recipes from the first two batches, we've provided links and descriptions to those recipes at the end of the page. Enjoy.

Recipe 10.8: Requiring Authentication for a Proxied Server


You wish to proxy content from a server, but it requires a login and password before content may be served from this proxied site.


Use standard authentication techniques to require logins for proxied content:

ProxyPass "/secretserver/" ""
<Directory "proxy:">
    AuthName SecretServer
    AuthType Basic
    AuthUserFile /path/to/secretserver.htpasswd
    Require valid-user

Related Reading

Apache Cookbook
By Ken Coar, Rich Bowen


This technique can be useful if you are running some sort of special-purpose or limited-function web server on your system, but you want to apply Apache's rich set of access control and its other features to access it. This is done by using the ProxyPass directive to make the special-purpose server's URI space part of your main server, and using the special proxy:path <Directory> container syntax to apply Apache settings only to the mapped URIs.

See Also

Recipe 11.6: Optimizing Symbolic Links


You wish to balance the security needs associated with symbolic links with the performance impact of a solution, such as using Options SymLinksIfOwnerMatch, which causes a server slowdown.


For tightest security, use Options SymlinksIfOwnerMatch, or Options -FollowSymLinks if you seldom or never use symlinks.

For best performance, use Options FollowSymlinks.


Symbolic links are an area in which you need to weigh performance against security and make the decision that makes the most sense in your particular situation.

In the normal everyday operation of a Unixish operating system, symbolic links are considered to be the same as the file to which they link. [1] When you cd into a directory, you don't need to be aware of whether that was a symlink or not. It just works.

Apache, on the other hand, has to consider whether each file and directory is a symlink or not, if the server is configured not to follow symlinks. And, additionally, if Option SymlinksIfOwnerMatch is turned on, Apache not only has to check if the particular file is a symlink, but also has to check the ownership of the link itself and of the target, in the event that it is a symlink. While this enforces a certain security policy, it takes a substantial amount of time and so slows down the operation of your server.

In the tradeoff between security and performance, in the matter of symbolic links, here are the guidelines.

If you are primarily concerned about security, never permit the following of symbolic links. It may permit someone to create a link from a document directory to content that you would not want to be on a public server. Or, if there are cases where you really need symlinks, use Options SymlinksIfOwnerMatch, which requires that someone may only link to files that they own and will presumably protect you from having a user link to a portion of the filesystem that is not already under their control.

If you are concerned about performance, then always use Options FollowSymlinks, and never use Options SymlinksIfOwnerMatch. Options FollowSymlinks permits Apache to follow symbolic links in the manner of most Unixish applications - that is, Apache does not even need to check to see if the file in question is a symlink or not.

See Also

[1] Of course, this is not true at the filesystem level, but we're just talking about the practical user level.

Recipe 12.4: Solving the "Trailing Slash" Problem


Loading a particular URL works with a trailing slash but does not work without it.


Make sure that ServerName is set correctly and that none of the Alias directives have a trailing slash.


The "trailing slash" problem can be caused by one of two configuration problems: an incorrect or missing value of ServerName, or an Alias with a trailing slash that doesn't work without it.

Incorrect ServerName

An incorrect or missing ServerName seems to be the most prevalent cause of the problem, and it works something like this: when you request a URL such as, where something is the name of a directory, Apache actually sends a redirect to the client telling it to add the trailing slash.

The way that it does this is to construct the URL using the value of ServerName and the requested URL. If ServerName is not set correctly, then the resultant URL, which is sent to the client, will generate an error on the client end when it can't find the resulting URL.

If, on the other hand, ServerName is not set at all, Apache will attempt to guess a reasonable value when you start it up. This will often lead it to guess incorrectly, using values such as or localhost, which will not work for remote clients. Either way, the client will end up getting a URL that it cannot retrieve.

Invalid Alias directive

In the second incarnation of this problem, a slightly malformed Alias directive may cause a URL with a missing trailing slash to be an invalid URL entirely.

Consider, for example, the following directive:

Alias /example/ /home/www/example/

The Alias directive is very literal, and aliases URLs starting with /example/, but it does not alias URLs starting with /example. Thus, the URL will display the default document from the directory /home/www/example/, while the URL will generate a "file not found" error message, with an error log entry that will look something like:

File does not exist: /usr/local/apache/htdocs/example

The solution to this is to create Alias directives without the trailing slash, so that they will work whether or not the trailing slash is used:

Alias /example /home/www/example

See Also

Rich Bowen is a member of the Apache Software Foundation, working primarily on the documentation for the Apache Web Server. DrBacchus, Rich's handle on IRC, can be found on the web at

Ken Coar is a member of the Apache Software Foundation, the body that oversees Apache development.

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Copyright © 2009 O'Reilly Media, Inc.