A common way to test the waters with a new revision control tool is to experiment with switching over an existing project, rather than starting a new project from scratch.
In this appendix, we discuss how to import a project’s history into Mercurial, and what to look out for if you are used to a different revision control system.
This excerpt is from Mercurial: The Definitive Guide . This definitive guide takes you step by step through ways to track, merge, and manage both open source and commercial software projects with Mercurial, using Windows, Mac OS X, Linux, Solaris, and other systems.
Mercurial ships with an extension named
convert, which can import project history from most
popular revision control systems. At the time this book was written,
Mercurial could import history from the following systems:
(To see why Mercurial itself is supported as a source, see the section called “Tidying Up the Tree”.)
[extensions] convert =
hg convert http://python-nose.googlecode.com/svn/trunk
convert extension operates
incrementally. In other words, after you have run hg
convert once, running it again will import any new revisions
committed after the first run began. Incremental conversion will only
work if you run hg convert in the same Mercurial
repository that you originally used, because the
convert extension saves some private metadata in a
non-revision controlled file named
inside the target repository.
When you want to start making changes using Mercurial, it’s best to clone the tree in which you are doing your conversions, and leave the original tree for future incremental conversions. This is the safest way to let you pull and merge future commits from the source revision control system into your newly active Mercurial project.
The hg convert command given above
converts only the history of the
trunk branch of
the Subversion repository. If we instead use the URL
will automatically detect the
branches layout that
Subversion projects usually use, and it will import each as a separate
By default, each Subversion branch imported into
Mercurial is given a branch name. After the conversion completes, you
can get a list of the active branch names in the Mercurial repository
using hg branches -a. If you would prefer to import
the Subversion branches without names, pass the
convert.hg.usebranchnames=false option to hg
Once you have converted your tree, if you want to follow the usual Mercurial practice of working in a tree that contains a single branch, you can clone that single branch using hg clone -r mybranchname.
Some revision control tools save only short usernames with commits, and these can be difficult to interpret. The norm with Mercurial is to save a committer’s name and email address, which is much more useful for talking to them after the fact.
If you are converting a tree from a revision control
system that uses short names, you can map those names to longer
equivalents by passing the
--authors option to
hg convert. This option accepts a filename that
should contain entries of the following form.
arist = Aristotle <email@example.com> soc = Socrates <firstname.lastname@example.org>
convert encounters a
commit with the username
arist in the source
repository, it will use the name
<email@example.com> in the converted Mercurial
revision. If no match is found for a name, it is used verbatim.
convert extension supports the
idea of a “file map” that can reorganize the files and
directories in a project as it imports the project’s history. This is
useful not only when importing history from other revision control
systems, but also to prune or refactor a Mercurial tree.
# This is a comment. # Empty lines are ignored. include path/to/file exclude path/to/file rename from/some/path to/some/other/place
include directive causes a
file, or all files under a directory, to be included in the
destination repository. This also excludes all other files and directories not
explicitly included. The
exclude directive causes
files or directories to be omitted, and others not explicitly
mentioned to be included.
To move a file or directory from one location to
another, use the
rename directive. If you need to move a file or directory from a
subdirectory into the root of the repository, use . as the second
argument to the
You will often need several attempts before you hit the perfect combination of user map, file map, and other conversion parameters. Converting a Subversion repository over an access protocol like ssh or http can proceed thousands of times slower than Mercurial is capable of operating due to network delays. This can make tuning that perfect conversion recipe very painful.
The svnsync command can greatly speed up the conversion of a Subversion repository. It is a read-only mirroring program for Subversion repositories. The idea is that you create a local mirror of your Subversion tree, then convert the mirror into a Mercurial repository.
svnadmin create memcached-mirror
echo '#!/bin/sh' > memcached-mirror/hooks/pre-revprop-change
chmod +x memcached-mirror/hooks/pre-revprop-change
svnsync --init file://`pwd`/memcached-mirror \
svnsync sync file://`pwd`/memcached-mirror
hg convert memcached-mirror
There are two advantages to doing a two-stage import with svnsync. The first is that it uses more efficient Subversion network syncing code than hg convert, so it transfers less data over the network. The second is that the import from a local Subversion tree is so fast that you can tweak your conversion setup repeatedly without having to sit through a painfully slow network-based conversion process each time.
Subversion is currently the most popular open source revision control system. Although there are many differences between Mercurial and Subversion, making the transition from Subversion to Mercurial is not particularly difficult. The two have similar command sets and generally uniform interfaces.
The fundamental difference between Subversion and Mercurial is of course that Subversion is centralized, while Mercurial is distributed. Since Mercurial stores all of a project’s history on your local drive, it only needs to perform a network access when you want to explicitly communicate with another repository. In contrast, Subversion stores very little information locally, and the client must thus contact its server for many common operations.
Subversion more or less gets away with not having a well-defined notion of a branch: which portion of a server’s namespace qualifies as a branch is a matter of convention, with the software providing no enforcement. Mercurial treats a repository as the unit of branch management.
Since Subversion doesn’t know what parts of its namespace are really branches, it treats most commands as requests to operate at and below whatever directory you are currently visiting. For instance, if you run svn log, you’ll get the history of whatever part of the tree you’re looking at, not the tree as a whole.
Mercurial’s commands behave differently, by defaulting to operating over an entire repository. Run hg log and it will tell you the history of the entire tree, no matter what part of the working directory you’re visiting at the time. If you want the history of just a particular file or directory, simply supply it by name, e.g., hg log src.
With Subversion, it is normal (though slightly frowned upon) for multiple people to collaborate in a single branch. If Alice and Bob are working together, and Alice commits some changes to their shared branch, Bob must update his client’s view of the branch before he can commit. Since at this time he has no permanent record of the changes he has made, he can corrupt or lose his modifications during and after his update.
Mercurial encourages a commit-then-merge model instead. Bob commits his changes locally before pulling changes from, or pushing them to, the server that he shares with Alice. If Alice pushed her changes before Bob tries to push his, he will not be able to push his changes until he pulls hers, merges with them, and commits the result of the merge. If he makes a mistake during the merge, he still has the option of reverting to the commit that recorded his changes.
It is worth emphasizing that these are the common ways of working with these tools. Subversion supports a safer work-in-your-own-branch model, but it is cumbersome enough in practice to not be widely used. Mercurial can support the less-safe mode of allowing changes to be pulled in and merged on top of uncommitted edits, but this is considered highly unusual.
Each approach has its advantages and disadvantages. The Subversion model means that changes are published, and hence reviewable and usable, immediately. On the other hand, this means that a user must have commit access to a repository in order to use the software in a normal way, and commit access is not lightly given out by most open source projects.
The Mercurial approach allows anyone who can clone a repository to commit changes without the need for someone else’s permission, and they can then publish their changes and continue to participate however they see fit. The distinction between committing and pushing does open up the possibility of someone committing changes to their laptop and walking away for a few days having forgotten to push them, which in rare cases might leave collaborators temporarily stuck.
Table A.1. Subversion commands and Mercurial equivalents
|svn add||hg add|
|svn blame||hg annotate|
|svn cat||hg cat|
|svn checkout||hg clone|
|svn cleanup||n/a||No cleanup needed|
|svn commit||hg commit; hg push||hg push publishes after commit|
|svn copy||hg clone||To create a new branch|
|svn copy||hg copy||To copy files or directories|
|svn delete (svn remove)||hg remove|
|svn diff||hg diff|
|svn export||hg archive|
|svn help||hg help|
|svn import||hg addremove; hg commit|
|svn info||hg parents||Shows what revision is checked out|
|svn info||hg showconfig paths.parent||Shows what URL is checked out|
|svn list||hg manifest|
|svn log||hg log|
|svn merge||hg merge|
|svn mkdir||n/a||Mercurial does not track directories|
|svn move (svn rename)||hg rename|
|svn resolved||hg resolve -m|
|svn revert||hg revert|
|svn status||hg status|
|svn update||hg pull -u|
Under some revision control systems, printing a diff for a single committed revision can be painful. For instance, with Subversion, to see what changed in revision 104654, you must type svn diff -r104653:104654. Mercurial eliminates the need to type the revision ID twice in this common case. For a plain diff, type hg export 104654. For a log message followed by a diff, type hg log -r104654 -p.
When you run hg status without any arguments, it prints the status of the entire tree, with paths relative to the root of the repository. This makes it tricky to copy a filename from the output of hg status into the command line. If you supply a file or directory name to hg status, it will print paths relative to your current location instead. So to get tree-wide status from hg status, with paths that are relative to your current directory and not the root of the repository, feed the output of hg root into hg status. You can easily do this as follows on a Unix-like system:
hg status `hg root`
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