If your computer came with Mac OS X 10.5 already installed on it, you can skip this appendix—for now. But if you're running an earlier version of the Mac OS and want to savor the Leopard experience, this appendix describes how to install the new operating system on your Mac.
This excerpt is from Mac OS X: Missing Manual Leopard . Filled with step-by-step tutorials that will have you creating detailed 3-D objects quickly, Google SketchUp: The Missing Manual offers crystal-clear instructions for using every feature. You'll learn to use the basic tools, build and animate models, and place objects in Google Earth, with lots of real-world examples to show you how it's done.
For starters, you need to make sure that you and your Mac have what it takes to handle Mac OS X—specifically:
A Macintosh with a G4, G5, or Intel processor. Those old Power Mac G3s and PowerBook G3s have finally fallen off the Mac OS X upgrade path. (And G4 machines require an 867-megahertz chip or faster.) Basically, most Macs manufactured since the end of 2004 are eligible, which isn't bad at all.
Plenty of free hard disk space. You need 9 GB free to install the full Mac OS X 10.5—more if you install the Developer Tools, less if you decline to install all the optional languages and printer drivers (more on this in a moment).
A lot of memory. Apple recommends at least 512 MB of memory, but Mac OS X absolutely loves memory. For the greatest speed, install 1 gigabyte—2 or more if you can afford it.
(And these days, you probably can.)
The latest firmware. Firmware describes the low-level, underlying software instructions that control the actual circuitry of your Mac. Every now and then, Apple updates it for certain Mac models, and it's very important that your Mac has the absolute latest. If yours doesn't, a message will appear to let you know during the Leopard installation. Some Macs might just spit the DVD right out. Quit the installer and grab the latest updater from www.apple.com/support/downloads.
A copy of Leopard to install. Apple sells Leopard in several ways. There's the regular Leopard DVD, for example, and there's the Family Pack, which authorizes you to install Leopard on up to five Macs in the same household.(Neither version is copyprotected; only the honor system stops you from installing on a sixth Mac.)
And then there's the version that comes with every new Mac. It's labeled Mac OS X Leopard Disc 1, but it's the same thing as the sold-separately DVD. (Disc 2, in this case, contains all the other programs that come with a new Mac, like the iLife software suite.)
The Mac OS X installer can perform a number of different installations. For example, it can put a copy of Mac OS X 10.5 onto a hard drive that currently has:
Nothing on it. If you one day have to erase your hard drive completely—because it's completely hosed, or, less drastically, because you've bought a new, empty external hard drive—this is how to do it. See "Erase & Install," on the section called “The Setup Assistant”, for a step-by-step guide.
Mac OS 9. See "The Basic Installation" on the facing page for a step-by-step explanation. (Your old Mac OS 9 System Folder will still be there after the installation, but it won't do you much good. Classic doesn't exist anymore, and the only Leopard-compatible Macs that can restart into Mac OS 9 are a handful of pre-2003 G4 models.)
Mac OS X 10.0 through 10.4. The Leopard installer can turn your older copy of Mac OS X into the 10.5 version, in the process maintaining all of your older preferences, fonts, documents, accounts, and so on. See "The Upgrade Installation" on the section called “The Upgrade Installation”.
On the other hand, a substantial body of evidence (specifically, hundreds of moaning Mac fans online) points to the wisdom of performing a clean install, rather than an upgrade installation. (Apple calls the clean install the "Archive & Install" option.) A clean installation provides a healthier, more glitch-proof copy of 10.5. See "The Clean Install" on the section called “Erase & Install”.
MacOSX10.5. In times of dire troubleshooting, when nothing in Appendix B, Troubleshooting has helped, you can actually give yourself a fresh copy of 10.5, even though it's already on the hard drive. See "The Clean Install" on the section called “Erase & Install”.
The installation process takes about 45 minutes, but for the sake of your own psyche, you'll probably want to set aside a whole afternoon. Once the installation is overkl;, you'll want to play around, organize your files, and learn the lay of the land.
Insert the Mac OS X DVD. Double-click the Install Mac OS X icon in the disc's main window (Figure A.1, “Your installation adventure is about to begin. The very first step, though, is restarting the Mac, which the installer invites you to do.”). When the Restart button appears, click it.
The Mac starts up from the disc and takes you directly to the first Installer screen.
Figure A.1. Your installation adventure is about to begin. The very first step, though, is restarting the Mac, which the installer invites you to do.
The installer soon falls into a pattern: Read the instructions, make a couple of choices, and click Continue to advance to the next screen. As you go, the list on the left side of the screen reveals where you are in the overall procedure.
You can back out of the installation at any time before step 5, just by choosing Installer→Quit Installer. When the Restart button appears, click it. Then eject the Mac OS X disc, either by holding down the mouse button while the computer restarts or, if you have a tray-loading CD drive, by pushing its Eject button during the moment of darkness during the restart.
Work your way through the Select Language screen, Welcome screen, and Software License Agreement screens, clicking Continue each time.
Note that once you're past the Select Language screen, the Mac OS X Installer menu bar becomes available. In the Utilities menu are some very useful commands; they let you jump directly into programs like Disk Utility (to erase or partition your hard drive), Terminal (to do some Unixy preparatory steps), System Profiler (to see how much memory this machine has), Reset Password (if you've forgotten yours), and more.
If you do decide to take that detour to another program, when you quit it, you'll return to the Installer program, right where you left off.
The Software License Agreement requires you to click a button confirming that you agree with whatever Apple's lawyers say.
On the Select a Destination screen, click the disk or partition on which you want to install Mac OS X.
Icons for all of your disks (or partitions) appear on the screen, but ones that are off-limits to Mac OS X (like CDs and USB hard drives) appear dimmed, if at all.
Click the icon of the drive—or the partition, if you've created one to hold Mac OS X—that will be your new main startup drive.
If a yellow, triangular exclamation point logo appears on a drive, it probably has a newer version of Mac OS X 10.5 on it. (Read the message at the bottom of the dialog box to find out.) That's the case if you're trying to install from the original 10.5 DVD, but you already have 10.5.2 on the hard drive, for example. No problem; you should be reading "The Clean Install" instructions on the section called “Erase & Install” anyway.
You arrive at the Easy Install screen. The easiest way to proceed here is to click Install. But don't.
Instead, take the time to click Customize.
The Installer shows you a list of the various chunks that constitute Mac OS X. A few of them are easily dispensable. For example, if you turn off Additional Fonts, Language Translations (for Japanese, German, French, and so on), the drivers for printer models that you don't own, and the X11 Unix kit (the section called “Putting It Together”), you save a staggering 5.5 gigabytes. It's like getting a whole mini-hard drive for free (ka-ching!). Click Done when you're finished gloating.
Now you're in for a 25-minute wait as the Installer copies software onto your hard drive. When the installer's finished, you see a message indicating that your Mac will restart in 30 seconds. If you haven't wandered off to watch TV, click the Restart button to end the countdown and get on with it.
Mac OS X 10.5 is now installed on your Mac—but you're not quite ready to use it yet. See "The Setup Assistant" on the section called “The Setup Assistant”.
If Mac OS X version 10.0 through 10.4-point-anything is on your hard drive, the Leopard installer can neatly nip and tuck its software code, turning it into version 10.5.Every thing remains just as you had it: your accounts, folders, files, email, network settings, everything-else settings, and so on.
This sophisticated surgery occasionally leaves behind a minor gremlin here and there: peculiar cosmetic glitches, a checkbox that doesn't seem to work, and so on. If that possibility concerns you, a clean install is a safer way to go. (A clean install does, however, require a little more post-installation fiddling to reinstate your settings, notably your Internet and network preferences.)
If you're still game to perform the upgrade installation, follow the previously outlined steps 1 through 3. On the Select Destination screen, however, click Options.
Now you're offered several variations of the basic installation. The one you want is Upgrade Mac OS X. Click it, and then click OK. Proceed with the previous step 4. (The button described there now says Upgrade, though, instead of Install.)
In Mac OS 9 and Windows, the clean install is considered an essential troubleshooting technique. It entails installing a second System Folder or Windows folder—a fresh one, uncontaminated by the detritus left behind by you and your software programs.
In general, though, you and your software can't invade the Mac OS X System folder. The kind of gradual corruption that could occur in those older operating systems is theoretically impossible in Mac OS X, and therefore the need to perform a clean install is almost completely eliminated.
That's the theory, anyway. In fact, somehow or other, things do go wrong with your Mac OS X installation. Maybe you or somebody else has been fiddling around in Terminal and wound up deleting or changing some important underlying files. Certain shareware programs can perform deep-seated changes like this, too.
The point is that eventually, you may wish you could just start over with a new, perfect copy of Mac OS X. And thanks to the clean install ("Archive and Install") option, you can—without having to erase the hard drive first.
Start by following steps 1 through 3 in "The Basic Installation" section. On the Select Destination screen, though, click Options. Now you're offered four kinds of installation. Turn on "Archive and Install." ("Preserve Users and Network Settings" should be on, too.)
This powerful option leaves all of your accounts (Home folders, documents, pictures, movies, Favorites, email, and so on) untouched. As the option's name implies, it also leaves your network and Internet settings alone. But it deactivates your old System folder (you'll find it, later, in a new folder called Previous System Folders) and puts a new one in its place. And that's exactly what you want.
Click OK and then continue with step 4 (the section called “Phase 1: The Installer”). When it's all over, you'll be confident that your Mac OS X installation is clean, fresh, and ready for action.
The final installation option is called Erase & Install (known to the geek community as "Nuke 'n' Pave"). As you can guess, it erases your entire hard drive and installs the ultimate clean, fresh, sparkling new copy of Leopard and its applications there. Use this "nuke-and-pave" option when you're about to sell your Mac and want to ensure that no trace of your former stuff is still there.
If you're absolutely certain that you won't regret completely erasing the computer (or you have a brand-new, virgin hard drive), follow the previously described steps 1 through 3. On the Select Destination screen, though, click Options, and select Erase & Install. Continue with step 4.
When the Mac restarts after the installation, the first thing you experience is one of the most visually stunning post-installation OS startup movies in history: a flythrough of deep space, accompanied by scooby-dooby music and a fancy parade of 3-D, computer-generated translations of the word "Welcome." Once Apple has quite finished showing off its multimedia prowess, you arrive at a Welcome screen.
If you do so, you're treated to a crash course in VoiceOver, the screen-control/screen-reading software described on the section called “Speak selected text when the key is pressed”. This, by the way, is the only time you'll be offered this tutorial, so pay attention. (Hint: Here are the basics. Hold down the Control and Option keys and press the arrow keys to highlight different elements of the screen, hearing them pronounced. When a new window opens, press Control-Option-Shift-W to read the contents of the window. Press Control-Option-Space bar to "click.")
Once again, you're in for a click-through-the-screens experience, this time with the aim of setting up your Mac's various options. After answering the questions on each screen, click Continue.
The number and sequence of information screens you'll encounter depend on whether you've upgraded an existing Mac or started fresh, but here are some of the possibilities:
Welcome. Click the name of the country you're in.
Select Your Keyboard. Different countries require different keyboard layouts. For example, if you choose the Canadian layout, pressing the ] key on a U.S. keyboard produces the ç symbol. Click Continue.
Do you already own a Mac? If you choose "Transfer my information from another Mac," the installer will assist you in sucking all of your old programs, files, folders, and settings from the old Mac to the new one.
You have to help it, however, by connecting a FireWire cable between the two Macs, and then restarting the old Mac while holding down its T key. ("FireWire connection established.") Yes, that's right: the installer is putting you into FireWire Disk Mode (the section called “Exchanging Data with Other Macs”) for super-high-speed transfer.
You're using the Mac OS X Migration Assistant, shown in Figure A.2, “The Migration Assistant is actually pretty amazing. It brings over to your new Mac (or new Mac OS X installation) all of the files, settings, folders, and even installed programs from an older Mac—or, in times of tragedy, from a Time Machine backup (see Chapter 6, Time Machine, Syncing, and Moving Data).Along the way, you'll be asked whose account folder(s) you want brought over, which other stuff (like applications, files, and folders) to copy, and which sorts of settings.When it's all over, you might have to reactivate a couple of Adobe programs, but otherwise, you should be ready to roll on your new (or new-feeling) Mac.”. The bottom of the screen lets you know how much stuff you've tagged for transferring, and how much disk space remains on the new Mac.
When you click Transfer, the data-copying process begins.
Figure A.2. The Migration Assistant is actually pretty amazing. It brings over to your new Mac (or new Mac OS X installation) all of the files, settings, folders, and even installed programs from an older Mac—or, in times of tragedy, from a Time Machine backup (see Chapter 6, Time Machine, Syncing, and Moving Data).Along the way, you'll be asked whose account folder(s) you want brought over, which other stuff (like applications, files, and folders) to copy, and which sorts of settings.When it's all over, you might have to reactivate a couple of Adobe programs, but otherwise, you should be ready to roll on your new (or new-feeling) Mac.
Select a Wireless Service. This is your chance to introduce the Mac to any wireless networks in the vicinity. Click the network name you want to join, if you see it. If you don't see it, click Rescan to make the Mac sniff again in an attempt to locate the network. Or if there's no wireless hot spot at all—hey, it could happen—click Different Network Setup.
In that event, you're offered choices like Airport wireless, Cable modem/DSL modem, Local network (Ethernet), and "My computer does not connect to the Internet." (Bummer!) When you click Continue, you may be asked for specific information—the local access number, account name, and password, and so on— regarding your Internet account. See Chapter 18, Internet Setup for advice on filling in these settings.
Enter Your Apple ID. Here, you're offered the chance to type in, or create, an Apple ID—which is your email address. An Apple ID doesn't cost anything, but it makes life easier if you want to buy songs from the Apple Music Store, order gift books or prints from iPhoto, and so on. (If you have a .Mac account—see the section called “.Mac Services”—put that account info here.
A Few More Questions. Where will you primarily use this computer? What best describes what you do? Do you want to get junk mail from Apple?
Create Your Account. Most of the steps up to this point have been pretty inconsequential, but this is a big moment. You're about to create your account—your Administrator account, in fact, as described in Chapter 12, Accounts, Parental Controls, and Security.
All you have to do is make up a name, usually a short variation of your name and a password. Choose carefully, because you can't easily change your account name later.
What you come up with here is extremely important, especially if several different people use this Mac at different times, or if other people connect to it on a network. See the section called “Burning CDs and DVDs” for details on creating a password and a hint that will help you remember it.
If you're the only one who uses your Mac, it's perfectly OK to leave the password blank empty.
Select a Picture For This Account. If your Mac has a built-in camera (most models do), you can take a photo of yourself to use as your account icon. Just click "Take a video snapshot." You get a three-second countdown, and then the Mac snaps your photo. (You can always reshoot it.) Adjust the cropping by dragging inside the photo, and adjust the size by dragging the slider beneath it.
If you're camera-shy, of course, you can choose "Choose from the picture library" instead, and find an Apple-provided icon instead.
Your .Mac Billing Information. If you have a .Mac membership, Apple cheerfully lets you know when it will expire.
Thanks For being a .Mac member. Aw, shucks.
Thank You. When you click Go, you wind up at the Mac OS X desktop, just as described in Chapter 1, Folders and Windows
There isn't any easy way to remove Mac OS X Leopard if you decide that you don't like it.
The chief problem is that thousands of its pieces are invisible. Even if you start up the Mac from another disk and then drag all the visible Mac OS X folders to the Trash, you'll leave behind many megabytes of software crumbs that you can't see.
So if you want to retreat to something earlier, back up the data that's worth preserving—mainly, your Home folder and Applications folder—and then erase the hard drive or partition and reinstall the operating system that you prefer.
If you enjoyed this excerpt, buy a copy of Mac OS X: Missing Manual Leopard .
Copyright © 2009 O'Reilly Media, Inc.