Installing Oracle 9iR2 on Red Hat 9by Roko Roic
There are an ever-growing number of reasons to run the Oracle database server on a Linux-based OS. The price factor is obvious, as OS licenses can really boost the total price of your multiple workstation or clustered (RAC) server installation. Then there's the stability factor, the possibility of total remote administration, the availability of platform source code, speed, flexible filesystem, the strong Unix legacy .... Heck, even Oracle itself runs its business on what they like to call Unbreakable Linux.
Red Hat's latest and greatest Linux distribution release comes with quite a few improvements, many of which are targeted at the needs of the workstation user. As new hardware owners become early adopters, this OS will surely dominate Linux developers' workstations in the months to come. Support for cutting-edge hardware and software technologies, easier maintenance via graphical configuration tools, polished office and productivity applications, a unified interface, development tools, and, of course, Red Hat's reputation will also make it the OS of choice for many Oracle developers. Unfortunately, unless the current version was certified, Oracle installation hardly ever ran smoothly on Red Hat Linux. Still, where there's a will, there's always a way. With a little help from this article, you will have your Oracle 9iR2 server running in no time on your new Red Hat 9 box. Let us begin.
Adding Users and Groups
First, you will need to create the Oracle installation and users and groups. Oracle installation needs two Unix user groups and one runtime Oracle user.
Log in as root and issue the following commands in a terminal:
[root@miniroko]# groupadd dba [root@miniroko]# groupadd oinstall [root@miniroko]# useradd -g oinstall -G dba oracle [root@miniroko]# passwd oracle
The last command will prompt you to enter the password for your
oracle user. Make sure you remember it, because you will probably
need it as we go along.
Oracle recommends OFA, the Optimal Flexible Architecture directory structure for a deployment server, but on a development machine and for the sake of simplicity, we will install everything under /opt/ora9.
Just make sure you have at least 3.5GB available for a full installation including one database, and issue the following commands as root:
[root@miniroko]# mkdir -p /opt/ora9/product/9.2 [root@miniroko]# mkdir /var/opt/oracle [root@miniroko]# chown oracle.dba /var/opt/oracle [root@miniroko]# chown -R oracle.dba /opt/ora9 [root@miniroko]# chmod 755 /var/opt/oracle
You have now created Oracle runtime directories and granted write
privileges to user
oracle and execute privileges to group
Installing Required Tools and Libraries
You will need to install the following Red Hat backward-compatibility and software-development packages before we get further underway. All of these packages can be found on Red Hat installation CDs 1-3.
gcc-3.2.2-5 cpp-3.2.2-5 glibc-devel-2.3.2-11.9 binutils-126.96.36.199.18-9 compat-gcc-7.3-2.96.118.i386.rpm compat-libgcj-7.3-2.96.118.i386.rpm compat-libgcj-devel-7.3-2.96.118.i386.rpm nss_db-compat-2.2-20.i386.rpm
You can install these packages using Redhat's graphical package manager available in Start menu->System Settings->Add/Remove Applications, or from the command line, using:
rpm -Uvh <package_name>
package_name with each RPM listed above.
Important notice: A shrink-wrapped Red Hat 9 and the freely downloadable version do not contain the same
If your system contains a non-empty /lib/i686 directory, fetch the i686 packages. Otherwise, you may run into trouble with misplaced libraries. Where an i686 version of the package is not available, just use whatever is.
Once you have downloaded all of the packages, use the command line
rpm tool to upgrade:
% rpm -UVh package_name
Setting Kernel Parameters
Red Hat religiously sets some kernel parameters too conservatively. Check your hardware configuration and assign enough shared memory, open files, and ports, or you may run into trouble installing and running Oracle. Append these lines to /etc/sysctl.conf to set kernel parameters:
kernel.shmmax = 536870912 kernel.shmmni = 4096 kernel.shmall = 2097152 kernel.sem = 250 32000 100 128 fs.file-max = 65536 net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 1024 65000
Append these lines to /etc/security/limits.conf to modify your resource limits:
oracle soft nofile 65536 oracle hard nofile 65536 oracle soft nproc 16384 oracle hard nproc 16384
Reboot the system so the kernel changes can take effect. If rebooting is not an option, you can change the kernel params at runtime by issuing:
[root@miniroko]# echo 250 32000 100 128 > /proc/sys/kernel/sem [root@miniroko]# echo 536870912 > /proc/sys/kernel/shmmax [root@miniroko]# echo 4096 > /proc/sys/kernel/shmmni [root@miniroko]# echo 2097152 > /proc/sys/kernel/shmall [root@miniroko]# echo 65536 > /proc/sys/fs/file-max [root@miniroko]# echo 1024 65000 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_local_port_range
For a full explanation of the
/proc filesystem and available
parameters, you might want to read Red Hat's Online Linux Manual.
Setting up the
oracle User Environment
Log in as the
% su - oracle
I will assume that you are using the default
bash shell for this user.
Setting environment variables in other shells may differ from this example, so
check your shell's manual page or set
bash as the
oracle user's shell. We will set
up Oracle basic environment (users, paths, locale) and some extra values needed
for Oracle to run correctly on Red Hat 9. Put the following lines at the end of
# oracle 9i export ORACLE_BASE=/opt/ora9 export ORACLE_HOME=/opt/ora9/product/9.2 export PATH=$ORACLE_HOME/bin:$ORACLE_HOME/Apache/Apache/bin:$PATH export ORACLE_OWNER=oracle export ORACLE_SID=ora9i export ORACLE_TERM=xterm # Use old Linuxthreads with floating stacks instead of # the new Native POSIX Thread Library (NPTL) export LD_ASSUME_KERNEL=2.4.1 export THREADS_FLAG=native # Edit paths export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=/opt/ora9/product/9.2/lib:$LD_LIBRARY_PATH export PATH=/opt/ora9/product/9.2/bin:$PATH # # change this NLS settings to suit your country: # example: # german_germany.we8iso8859p15, american_america.we8iso8859p2 etc. # export NLS_LANG='croatian_croatia.ee8iso8859p2'
If you are using other national settings for Oracle (these are Croatian),
consult the supported settings and change the
NLS_LANG variable accordingly.
The Red Hat 9 Linux kernel comes with the new Native POSIX Thread Library,
which causes Oracle installation to hang. By setting the
LD_ASSUME_KERNEL variable to an older kernel version, we are making Linux use the old Linuxthreads library. For more information about the difference between these threading methods, please consult the Red Hat 9 Release notes.
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