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Lisp and Java

by Dan Milstein

Why learn a new programming language? Among other excellent reasons (such as good, old-fashioned intellectual curiosity), there's the opportunity to pick up useful techniques, tricks, and idioms that you can apply in your day-to-day programming life. At its best, studying a new language can give you the kind of conceptual shift that illuminates thorny problems in a new light. Even if your mainstream language of choice doesn't provide the special-purpose syntax that you find in a language you're exploring, you can often find a way to implement the underlying technique in a useful manner.

In this article, we're going to steal an idea from one of the most theft-worthy languages out there: Lisp. We're going to pick out one of its most useful features -- the ability to treat functions as data -- and talk about how to apply this feature, in a slightly different form, in Java. In the course of doing so, we'll give a very (very) brief introduction on how to read Lisp code. We'll also develop a small but useful library for JDBC and collections programming that you are welcome to use, abuse, and extend as you see fit. We're going to use the Scheme dialect of Lisp for our discussion, because it expresses the ideas we're interested in in a particularly clear and elegant way.

Lisp Code and How To Read It

(this (is what)
  (lisp code
    (like (more (or less)))))

A casual observer of Lisp code will notice the dazzling collection of parentheses, without a heck of a lot else to visually break up the code. Where in a language with C-descended syntax you get parentheses, curly braces, commas, colons, semicolons, and a whole horde of other syntactical signposts to keep you on your way, in Lisp, you get pretty much nothing but ( and its friend ). All other tokens are separated by white space, and indentation, though extremely important culturally, has no significance as part of the language itself.

For example, in Lisp, if you want to, say, call a function that doubles a number, you write:

(double 7)

Side note: when discussing Lisp, it's common to show the result of evaluating an expression as follows:

(double 7)
=> 14

Which can be read as "(double 7) evaluates to 14."

In Java, there are basically two ways you can call a function: as an instance method or as a class method. For the former, you'd have something like:


For the latter:


For both of these cases in Java, you learn to see the word just before the opening parenthesis as "hot" -- it's the verb of the phrase you're reading. One nice thing about Java's instance method-call syntax is that makes it very clear what the subject of that verb is (by matching the English language's subject-verb-object order). In Lisp, the word immediately after the opening parenthesis is what you learn to read as the verb (in most cases), and there is no distinguished subject of that verb. This pattern is used for functions that are infix operators in other languages, such as plus and minus:

(+ 5 2)
=> 7

Or assignment (which has an undefined value, so we won't show it evaluating to anything):

(define a 11)

which is more or less equivalent to:

int a = 11;

Note that Lisp doesn't specify the type of variable a -- in Lisp, a variable can hold any type.

The intense regularity to the syntax can be forbidding. Parenthetical digression: the payoff comes through the ability to represent Lisp programs as Lisp data, which means that Lisp programmers can easily write programs to manipulate other programs. Although that is indeed a trick worth stealing or even spending a lifetime studying, it would take more of a book than an article to explore it fully. For such a book, check out Paul Graham's ANSI Common Lisp or On Lisp (available as a PDF on his web site), which contain many inspiring uses of the mighty Lisp macro. End parenthetical digression.

Moving on through the rudiments of the language: the basic data structure in Lisp is the list, which can be created in a variety of ways, one of the simplest of which is via the list function.

(define lst (list 2 3 5 7 11))

lst => (2 3 5 7 11)

Treating Functions as Data In Lisp

Okay, now that we've got basic Lisp syntax and Lisp data structures under our belts, we're ready to talk about the idea we're going to steal: in Lisp, functions are first-class objects, meaning they have all the "rights and privileges" accorded to other objects in Lisp. You can name them with variables, pass them into functions, return them from functions, and store them in data structures. They are no different from "basic" data. This facility turns out to be enormously powerful.

As a simple example, you can define a function that takes another function as an argument. Such a super function is known as a higher-order function. If this is a new concept, the key thing to understand is that you can, in Lisp, refer to a function without calling it, much as you can, in Java, refer to a variable without immediately using its value. In fact, in the Scheme dialect, the syntax for function and variable reference is identical. To show this, we'll introduce our first big higher-order function, map. The map function takes another function and a list as arguments and creates a new list by applying the function to each element of the original list, like so:

(define lst (list 2 3 5 7 11))

(map double lst)
=> (4 6 10 14 22)

In Java syntax, that'd look something like:

int[] lst = [ 2,3,5,7,11 ];
int double(int x) { return x + x; }
int[] dbls = map(double, lst);

Which looks great, but is, unfortunately, nonsense. In Java, you can't pick up a method and pass it into another method. There is no simple way to refer to the method at runtime -- you can only invoke it. You can't easily pass it to another function, return it from a function, or store it in a data structure. Through complex reflection tricks, these things can be done, but it's not for the faint of heart. In Lisp, you can do all of these things quite simply, and, in Lisp culture, you do them all the time.

Why First-Class Functions Are Useful

One place where first-class functions come in particularly handy is in dealing with collections. It's very common to have a collection of stuff and to want to produce another collection of stuff. You'd like to ignore the nitty-gritty of the looping code and just keep your mind on the collection as a whole. A higher-order function such as map lets you do just that.

An example: if you've done any work with aggregate data in Java, you've gotten used to seeing your ideas disappear under a haze of iterator code. In particular, one type of aggregate data that is tough to handle cleanly is the JDBC ResultSet. In my day-to-day life, I write a lot of Java code that pulls data out of a database and then displays it on a web page. For all of you JDBC fans, the following type of code probably looks all too familiar:

String query = "SELECT first_name, last_name, user_id " +
               "FROM users";
Statement stmt = conn.createStatement();
ResultSet rs = stmt.executeQuery(query);
ArrayList users = new ArrayList();
while(rs.next()) {
  String fname = rs.getString("first_name");
  String lname = rs.getString("last_name");
  String uid = rs.getString("user_id");
  users.add(new User(fname, lname, uid));

To a Lisp programmer, it would be natural to break down the above chunk of code into something that generates a list of rows, and a function that is then mapped over each row. How can we do something similar in Java?

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