If the fault is repeatable (i.e., it always happens at the same place in the same file—even after rebooting and trying again, using a stable kernel) you have discovered a bug in GCC. See the GCC Info documentation (type F1-i in Emacs, and select GCC from the menu) for details on how to report the error. Make sure you have the latest version, though.
Note that this is probably not a Linux-specific problem. Unless you are compiling a program many other Linux users also compile, you should not post your bug report to any of the comp.os.linux groups.
If the problem is not repeatable, you may be experiencing memory corruption. Refer to the answer: ("Make Says, "Error 139."")